Adrenal Balance
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Xtreme Couture Athletic Pharmaceuticals’ products are completely natural, made from vegetable cultures, and will not produce a positive performance enhancing drug test.


Use it to help balance the adrenal glands from the effects of stress and hard exercise.

Adapotegnic herbs have therapeutic potential for helping to manage stress, enhance metabolism and cellular energy processes, restore mitochondrial function, increase immunity and prevent disease. Adaptogenic herbs also have lead to improvements in mental performance and learning(2).

Adaptogenic herbs are particularly beneficial for athletes as they have been shown be anabolic (tissue building) and prevent-tissue catabolism (muscle mass breakdown)(1). Adaptogenic herbs were originally used by the Soviets to prevent the deleterious effects of overtraining.


Two (2) tablets one (1) to two (2) times each day as a dietary supplement or as otherwise recommended by your healthcare professional.

60 Servings - 120 Tablets

Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Pantothenic Acid, Zinc, Copper, Manganese, Stearic Acid, Silica, Cellulose Gum, Food Glaze, Magnesium Stearate, Lithium, L-Tyrosine, Achyranthes, Damiana, Gotu Kola, Sichuan Teasel, Asiatic Dogwood, Basil, Shisandra Chinensis, Tinospora Cordifolia, Rubidum

EDUCATION CENTER (Click On Topic Below To See More)
   • Amino Acids for Catecholamine Synthesis
   • Vitamins Associated with Adrenal Support
   • Minerals Associated with Adrenal Support  
   • Botanical Extracts for Adrenal Support
   • Are you Depressed?
   • Adrenal Glandular vs. Adrenal Balance

Amino Acids for Catecholamine Synthesis

L-Tyrosine is a conditionally essential amino acid.

This key raw material is a precursor for the synthesis of catecholamines, epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).

Stress increases the release of catecholamines, which in turn may result in depletion of their levels. As a precursor of the catecholamies, alterations in L-tyrosine availability result in an influential response in the synthesis of dopamine and norepoinephrine. This effect can be minimized by the use of supplemental L-tyrosine.11

11. Young SN. L-tyrosine to alleviate the effects of stress? J Psychiatry Neurosci 2007;32:224

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Vitamins Associated with Adrenal Support

Vitamin C (as ascorbic acid)  
The concentration of vitamin C in the adrenal glands is among the highest in the body, being roughly 100 times
that of blood plasma levels.12 As such they are extremely sensitive to deficiencies in vitamin C.

In catecholamine synthesis, vitamin C is required as a co-factor in the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine.13

In humans vitamin C secretion occurs as part of the stress response via hormone regulation, specifically in response to stimulation via the hormone adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH).

Following ACTH stimulation the mean adrenal vein vitamin C level increases approximately four fold,and then subsequently returns to near prestimulationlevels approximately 15 minutes thereafter.

Peak adrenal vitamin C and cortisol concentrations have been strongly correlated (r2=0.35, P<0.001), suggesting a local action of vitamin C on the adrenal glands.

Additionally, it has been noted that, although being of unknown function, the increase in vitamin C secretion suggests that “adrenal vitamin C secretion is an integral part of the stress response.”14

Stress, fever and viral infections, as well as habitual actions, such as smoking and alcohol use, cause a rapid decline in the blood level of vitamin C.15

13. Levine M. New concepts in the biology and biochemistry of
ascorbic acid. N Engl J Med. 1986 Apr 3;314(14):892-902.
14. Padayatty SJ, Doppman JL, Chang R, Wany Y, Gill J, Papanicolaou
DA, Levine M. Human adrenal glands secrete vitamin C in response to adrenocorticotrophic hormone. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul;86(1):145-9.
15. Naidu KA. Vitamin C in human health and disease is still a
mystery? An overview. Nutrition Journal 2003, 2:7.

Pantothenic Acid (as calcium pantothenate) 

Pantothenic acid is a cofactor in the synthesis of coenzyme A (CoA). CoA plays an important part in cellular respiration, as well as in the biosynthesis of many important compounds including fatty acids, cholesterol and acetylcholine.16

Animal studies have documented morphological damages in the adrenal cortex with pantothenic acid deficiency.17,18,19,20,21,22

Early experiments in animals also indicated that following prolonged pantothenic acid deficiency, extensive damage to the adrenal resulted, which was attributed to the adrenals inability to immediately utilize pantothenic acid. It was thus concluded that pantothenic acid deficiency results in an imposed stress upon the adrenal cortex, which in turn results in exhaustion and consequently adrenal hypofunction.23

In spite of the fact that deficiencies are generally thought of as being rare, a deficiency in pantothenate results in fatigue and generalized malaise.24

17. Morgan AF, Simms HD. Science. 1939;89:565.
18. Daft FS, Sebrell WH. Pub Health Rep., USPHS.
19. Nelson AA. Pub. Health Rep., USPHS. 1939;54:2250.
20. Daft FS, Sebrell WH. Pub Health Rep., USPHS. 1940;55:1333.
21. Ashburn LL. Pub Health Rep., USPHS. 1940;55:1337.
22. Deane HW, McKibbin JM. Endocrinology. 1946; 38:385.
23. Hurley LS, Morgan AF. Carbohydrate Metabolism and Adrenal Cortical Function in the Pantothenic Acid Deficient Rat. J. Biol. Chem. 1952 Apr;195(2):583-90.
24. Tahiliani AG, Beinlich CJ. Pantothenic acid in health and disease. Vitam. Horm. 1991;46:165-228. Review.

Vitamin B6 (as pyridoxal-5-phosphate and pyridoxine HCl) 

Vitamin B6 serves as a coenzyme in well over 100 reactions, most of which are transaminase reactions. It plays an important role in the synthesis of the neurotransmitters g-aminobutyric acid (GABA), serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine.25

As a physiological modulator of steroid hormone action, Vitamin B6 has been associated with modulation of the expression of a diverse array of hormonally responsive genes.26

For efficient function both the nervous and immune systems require an adequate supply of vitamin B6.27,28,29,30

Vitamin B6 is also required for the conversion of tryptophan to niacin and serotonin, 31,32 as well as for the conversion of tyrosine to dopamine.

In one study a deficiency in vitamin B6 was correlated to a slower extracellular dopamine release (43% longer with deficiency).33 Dopamine is known to be an active participant in the secretory modulation of both aldosterone and catecholamine from the adrenal gland.34

Dopamine depletion is correlated with physical and/or psychological stress.

25. Berdanier C. Advanced Nutrition Micronutrients. 1998. CRC Press.
26. Allgood VE, Cidlowski JA. Vitamin B6 modulates transcriptional activation by multiple members of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily. J Biol Chem. 1992 Feb 25;267(6):3819-24.
27. Gerster H. The importance of vitamin B6 for development of the infant. Human medical and animal experiment studies. Z Ernahrungswiss 1996; 35:309-17. [PubMed abstract]
28. Bender DA. Novel functions of vitamin B6. Proc Nutr Soc 1994;53:625-30. [PubMed Abstract].
29. Chandra R. and Sudhakaran L. Regulation of immune responses by Vitamin B6. NY Acad Sci 1990; 585:404-423. [PubMed abstract]
30. Trakatellis A, Dimitriadou A, Trakatelli M. Pyridoxine deficiency: New approaches in immunosuppression and chemotherapy. Postgrad Med J 1997; 73:617-22. [PubMed abstract]
31. Leklem JE. Vitamin B6. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, ed. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1999: 413-421.
32. Shibata K, Mushiage M, Kondo T, Hayakawa T, Tsuge H. Effects of vitamin B6 deficiency on the conversion ratio of tryptophan to niacin. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1995; 59:2060-3. [PubMed abstract]
33. Tang FI, Wei IL. Vitamin B6 deficiency prolongs the time course of evoked dopamine release from rat striatum. J Nutr. 2004 Dec;134(12):3350-4.
34. Pivonello R, Ferone D, de Herder WW, de Krijger RR, Waaijers M, Mooij DM, van Koetsveld PM, Barreca A, De Caro ML, Lombardi G, Colao A, Lamberts SW, Hofland LJ. Dopamine receptor expression and function in human normal adrenal gland and adrenal tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Sep;89(9):4493-502.

Vitamin E (as d-alpha tocopheryl acetate) 

Vitamin E is found in all cells in the human body, and functions primarily as an antioxidant. The adrenal cells, along with the pituitary, platelet and testicular cells contain the highest cellular concentration of vitamin E.35

In animal studies vitamin E deficiency was demonstrated to predispose tissues to lipid peroxidation.36 Conversely, vitamin E therapy affords protection against the effects of mineral toxicity, attributed to reversing the alterations in adrenocortical activities brought on by toxic mineral levels.

 In another study treatment with alpha tocopherol during times of significant stress was demonstrated to decrease lipid peroxidation in both the liver and the brain, while simultaneously preventing depletion in glutathione levels, which are routinely depleted by stress.37 Adrenal sensitivity to ACTH is also increased with vitamin E therapy.38

35. Abidi P, Leers-Sucheta S, Azhar S. Suppression of steroidogenesis and activator protein-1 transcription factor activity in rat adrenals by vitamin E deficiency-induced chronic oxidative stress. J Nutr Biochem. 2004 Apr;15(4):210 9.
36. Chandra AK, Ghosh R, chatterjee A, Sarkar M. Amelioration of vanadium-induced testicular toxicity and adrenocortical hyperactivity by vitamin E acetate in rats. Mol. Cell Biochem. 2007 Dec;306(1-2):189-200.
37. Tsiakitzis K, Kourounakis AP, Tani E, Rekka EA, Kourounakis PN. Stress and active oxygen species-effect of alpha-tocopherol on stress response. Arch Pharm (Weinheim). 2005 Jul;338(7):315-21.
38. Shorin IuP, Seliatitskaia VG, Kolosova NG, Kulikov VIu. Effect of alpha-tocopherol on the adrenal reaction to cold stress. Biull Eksp Biol. Med. 1985 Jun;99(6):669-71. (Russian).

Thiamin (as thiamin mononitrate)

Thiamin, a water-soluble B-complex vitamin, is involved in many bodily functions, including its requirement in the metabolism of carbohydrates, as part of the coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP).

In the absence of thiamin, a slowing or complete blocking of enzymatic activity occurs. As part of the citric acid cycle, essential for energy production, thiamin functions as a component in the decarboxylation of a-ketoglutaric acid to succinyl CoA.25

In animal studies corticosterone levels, have shown to be significantly increased with thiamin deficiency.39,40

25. Berdanier C. Advanced Nutrition Micronutrients. 1998. CRC Press.
39. Hastings MM, Van JL. Sodium deprivation during thiamin deficiency in rats: hormonal, histological, and behavioral responses. J Nutr. 1981 Nov;111(11):1955-63.
40. Gubler, CJ, Fujiwara, M, Dreyfus, PM. (1976) Biochemical changes in thiamine deficiencies. In: Thiamine. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 1976. pp. 121-142.


Like thiamine, riboflavin is also a water-soluble vitamin.

It participates in normal cell function, growth and energy production.

Riboflavin serves as a crucial component in converting food into energy via the manufacturing of flavin adenine
dinucleotide (FAD). FAD is required for electron transport and ATP production in the Krebs cycle.  (energy production)

Ariboflavinosis (riboflavin deficiency) is associated with weakness, cheilosis (fissures in the skin at the angles of the mouth), angular stomatitis (inflammation of the mucous lining of the mouth) and anemia. Individuals particularly susceptible to deficiency include the elderly, those with chronic illnesses or those with alcohol dependency.41

Stress increases the need for riboflavin due to an increase in fatty acid oxidation. Riboflavin deficiency has been correlated to adrenal cortex dysfunction in animals.42

42. Riboflavin and adrenal cortex. Nutr Rev 1973 31:96-97.


Niacin’s primary cellular function is as a coenzyme for NAD+ and NADP+, both of which function in the maintenance of cellular oxidation reduction reactions.

In addition to its varied cellular functions, NAD is used as a substrate for the production of poly-ADP-ribose (PARP). PARO is a nuclear enzyme activated by DNA strand breaks, which functions to synthesize polymers of ADP-ribose molecules, making it an important component in DNA repair.43 Niacin intake has also been correlated with anxiety reduction.

43. Cervantes-Laurean D, McElvaney NG, Moss J. Niacin. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1999:401-411.

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Minerals Associated with Adrenal Support


Zinc participates as an active component in over 300 different enzymes, and plays a vital role in many biological processes. As a cofactor for the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) it is an important component in cellular protection. It also functions in enzymatic reactions in both carbohydrate and protein metabolism.41

Zinc deficiency and adrenal stress have been associated. One study noted a correlation between zinc deficiency and prostaglandin production, designating that with deficiency interference in the production and/or function of the prostaglandins ensues.44

44. O’Dell, BL, Reynolds G, Reeves PG. Analogous Effects of Zinc Deficiency and Aspirin Toxicity in the Pregnant Rat. J. Nutr. 1977 107: 1222-1228.


Like zinc and iron, copper is also involved in gene regulation and expression, specifically for the metallothioneins, or metal-binding proteins.

Studies have suggested that copper plays a role in mitochondrial gene expression, noting a decrease in oxidative phosphorylation with deficiency. A number of enzymes require copper as a cofactor and copper is necessary to balance zinc.


Manganese (Mn) is a required mineralfor optimal adrenal glandular activity. It serves asa component for energy metabolism, as a cofactorfor enzymes of the citric acid cycle, as well as afunctional cofactor as a as part of the enzymaticstructure of several additional enzymes.

As an essential cofactor for Mn superoxide dismutase(MnSOD), it is an important participant in the cellularantioxidant defense mechanism.45 It also functionsas an important modulator in signal transduction pathways.46

Recent evidence has denoted a correlation between Mn deficiency and the balance of endothelium-derived prostanoids, indicating the presence of oxidative stress in Mn deficiency, as a result of reduced activity MnSOD, a major antioxidant enzyme.47

45. Malecki EA, Greger JL. Manganese Protects against Heart Mitochondrial Lipid Peroxidation in Rats Fed High Levels ofPolyunsaturated Fatty Acids. J Nutr. 1996;126(1):27-33.
46. Welder FC. Biochemical and Nutritional Role of Manganese: an overview. In: Klimis-Tavantzis DJ, editor. Manganese in Health and Disease. 1st ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1994.p.2-37.
47. Kalea AZ, Schuschke DA, Harris PD, Klimis-Zacas DJ. Cyclo-Oxygenase Inhibition Restores the Attenuated Vasodilation in Manganese-Deficient Rat Aorta. J. Nutr. 2006 136:2302-2307.


Lithium and Rubidium

Trace amounts of these two minerals are included as both are regarded as relaxant minerals. Additionally, lithium has been shown to have general neuroprotective effects,48 as well as to offer protection against glutamate excitotoxicity, and to offer CNS neuroplasticity, which was demonstrated in animals via molecular mechanisms.49

The trace mineral rubidium (Rb) resembles potassium in terms of its method of absorption and excretion. In one study treatment with lithium or rubidium resulted in a decreased dopamine output.50

48. Manji HK, Moore GJ, Chen G. Lithium up-regulates the cytoprotective protein Bcl-2 in the CNS in vivo: a role for neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects in manic depressive illness. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;61 Suppl 9:82-96.
49. Hashimoto R, Fujimaki K, Jeong MR, Senatorov VV, Christ L, Leeds P, Chuang DM, Takeda M. [Neuroprotective actions of lithium] [Article in Japanese]. Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi. 2003;105(1):81-6.
50. Gambarana C, Ghiglieri O, Masi F, Scheggi S, Tagliamonte A, De Montis MG. The effects of long-term administration of rubidium or lithium on reactivity to stress and on dopamine output in the nucleus accumbens in rats. Brain Research 1999;826(2):200-209.

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Botanical Extracts for Adrenal Support

A number of botanicals have properties identified as an aide in normalizing either excessive or deficient pathologies, with corresponding negligible disturbance in physiological function. In addition to established nutrients, several herbal extracts help support normal adrenal function. Many of these have their origins in Chinese or Ayurvedic traditions.

Achyranthes (extract)(root) 

In the Chinese pharmacology the action of Achyranthes is said to invigorate the blood, and to expel blood stasis. It is used in Yang tonic formulations. Its functionality is said to revolve around its ability to guide other herbs to the kidneys, genitals, and legs.

Damiana (extract)(herb) (Turnera diffusa)

Damiana is a small shrub with an aromatic leaf, found predominantly in Mexico, Southern and Central America. Like Achyranthes, Damiana is also designated as a yang tonic, and is suggested to aide with energy. It is considered a strengthener for the nervous system, and is viewed as a nervous restorative.53,54 Its properties are indicated as
diuretic, nerve stimulatory, aphrodisiac, and as being superior for impotence in men and frigidity in women.55 Traditional use is as a general tonic for the nervous, endocrine, and reproductive systems.41

53. Mills S. The Complete Guide to Modern Herbalism. 1994. Thorsons. Great Britain,.
54. Hoffman D. The New Holistic Herbal. 1990 Element, Dorset.
55. Ody P. The Complete Medicinal Herbal. 1993. Dorling Kindersley Limited, London.

Gotu Kola (extract)(herb) (Centella asiatica)

 In Ayurvedic medicine Gotu Kola is an herb viewed as an important component in rejuvenation, as well as one of the chief herbs for revitalizing the nerves and brain cells.

The following properties have been attributed to its actions; mildly antibacterial, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcerogenic, anxiolytic, a cerebral tonic, a circulatory stimulant, a diuretic, nervine and vulnerary.56 Punturee, et al demonstrated that C. asiatica has immunostimulating activity regarding both non-specific cellular immune responses and humoral immune responses. Additionally, they noted the inhibition of TNFa with an ethanol extract of C. asiatica, implicating that it may be an important component in downregulating inflammation.57

57. Punturee1 K, Wild CP, Kasinrerk W, Vinitketkumnuen1 U. Immunomodulatory Activities of Centella asiatica and Rhinacanthus nasutus Extracts. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev. 2005 6, 396-400.

Sichuan Teasel (extract)(root) (Dipsacus asperoides)

According to the Chinese tradition, Dipsacus asperoides (DA) is said to tonify the liver and kidneys, and to promote the movement of blood.58

A crude polysaccharide fraction (DAP-1) from the root of DA has been shown to have a stimulating effect on the mitogenic activity of lymphocytes, as well as to suppress the phagocytic activity of macrophages.59 DA has also demonstrated antinociceptive (a reduction in pain) effects in a dose-dependent manner (from 3.75 to 30 mcg).60

58. Bensky D, Gamble A. Chinese Herbal Medicine Materia Medica. 1993. Eastland Press, Inc.
59. Zhang Y, Kiyohara H, Matsumoto T, Yamada H. Fractionation and chemical properties of immunomodulating polysaccharides from roots of Dipsacus asperoides. Planta Med. 1997 Oct;63(5):393-9.
60. Suh HW, Song DK, Son KH, Wie MB, Lee KH, Jung KY, Do JC, Kim YH. Antinociceptive mechanisms of Dipsacus saponin C administered intracerebroventricularly in the mouse. General Pharmacology: The Vascular System. 1996 27(7):1167-1172.

Asiatic Dogwood. (extract)(fruit) (Cornus officinalis)

Cornus officinalis (CO) is popular in traditional medicine and is known for its tonic, analgesic, and diuretic properties.61

In addition to its use as a tonifier for liver and kidney deficiency, indicated by such symptoms as lightheadedness and dizziness, it is also said to tonify the essence and assist the yang.58

The aglycons of anthocyanins have been shown to possess strong antioxidant activities.62,63 Likewise, the anthocyanins of CO were
also demonstrated to possess strong antioxidant

58. Bensky D, Gamble A. Chinese Herbal Medicine Materia Medica. 1993. Eastland Press, Inc.
61. Kim, D.-K., Kwak, J. H. A Furan derivative from Cornus officinalis. Arch. Pharmacal Res. 1998, 21: 787-789.
62. Wang, H, Nair, MG, Strasburg, G M, Chang, YC, Booren, AM, Gray, IJ, Dewitt, DL. Antioxidant and anti inflammatory activities of anthocyanins and their aglycone, cyanidin, from tart cherries. J. Nat. Prod. 1999, 62, 294 296.
63. Seeram, NP, Momin RA, Bourquin LD, Nair MG. Cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant cyanidin glycosides in cherries and berries. Phytomedicine 2001, 8, 362-369.
64. NP Seeram NP, Schutzki R, Chandra A, Nair MG. Characterization, Quantification, and Bioactivities of Anthocyanins in Cornus Species. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002 50:2519-2523.

Basil (extract)(leaf) (Ocimum basilicum)

Basil is a popular culinary herb, as well as a medicinal herb in Thailand, India and Turkey.65

It is said to affect the lungs and stomach meridians, and its actions are indicated as being stimulatory to the adrenal cortex.66

The chief compounds isolated from basil include eugenol, citral and geraniol,67 as well as rosmarinic acid, a natural phenolic compound shown to inhibit complement-dependent inflammatory processes.68

65. http://www.natural
67. Lalko J, Api AM. Investigation of the dermal sensitization potential of various essential oils in the local lymph node assay. Food chem. Toxicol 2006;44(5):739-746.
68. Renzulli C, Galvano F, Pierdomenico L, Speroni E, Guerra MC. Effects of rosmarinic acid against aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin-Ainduced cell damage in a human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2). J Appl Toxicol. 2004 Jul-Aug;24(4):289-96.

Schisandra (extract)(fruit) (Schisandra chinensis)

Schisandra chinensis (SC) has been utilized in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for over 2,000 years, as both a tonic and a sedative.

As a tonic, one of its uses was to improve mental functions. It is considered an adaptogenic herb, which functions in the harmonization of the system.

More recently, SC has been utilized to ‘increase resistance to disease and stress, boost energy levels (without the jitteriness attributed to caffeine), increase both mental and physical endurance, and to improve vision, muscular and immune system.69

Modern Chinese research suggests that SC may have a protective effect on the liver as well as possessing immunomodulting properties.70 Gomisin A (GA), an isolated component from SC was demonstrated to cause a concentration dependent vascular relaxation of the rat thoracic aorta.71

71. Park JY, Lee SJ, Yun MR, Seo KW, Bae SS, Park JW, Lee YJ, Shin WJ, Choi YW, Kim CD. Gomisin A from Schisandra chinensis Induces Endothelium-Dependent and Direct Relaxation in Rat Thoracic Aorta. Planta Med. 2007 Dec 7; [Epub ahead of print]

Tinospora cordifolia (extract)(stem & root)

The use of Tinospora cordifolia (TC) for debility, fever and dyspepsia in Ayurvedia is commonly recognized.

The root of TC is documented as having anti-stress properties, as well as immune
supporting properties.72,73

An aqueous extract of TC has shown to be beneficial with adrenaline-induced hyperglycemia.74,75,76

72. Zhao TF, Wang X, Rimando AM, Che C. Folkloric medicinal plants: Tinospora sagittata var. cravaniana and Mahonia bealei. Planta Med 1991;57:505.

73. Nayampalli S, Ainapure SS, Nadkarni PM. Study of antiallergic acid Bronchodilator effects of Tinospora cordifolia. Indian J Pharm 1982;14:64-6.
74. Mahajan VR, Jolly CI. A new hypoglyceamic agent from Tinospora cordifolia Miers. Indian Drugs 1985;23:119 20.
75. Grover JK, Vats V, Rathi SS. Anti-hyperglycemic effect of Eugenia jambolana and Tinospora cordifolia in experimental diabetes and their effects on key metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;73:461-70.
76. Stanely M, Prince P, Menon VP. Hypoglycaemic and other related actions of Tinospora cordifolia roots in alloxan induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;70:9-15.

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