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Some Low Zinc symptoms:
Add Two (2) teaspoons One (1) to Two (2) times daily as a dietary supplement or as otherwise recommended by your healthcare professional.
SERVINGS PER BOTTLE
12 Servings - Net Weight of Bottle - 4 Ounces (120 ml)
Zinc, Purified water
EDUCATION CENTER (Click On Topic Below To See More)
• More About Zinc
• Zinc Taste Test
• Low Zinc Status and Eating Disorders
• In Depth Review of Zinc as a Dietary Supplement
Zinc is a component in MORE than 300 enzyme reactions in the body(1)
Total body stores of Zinc average 2-3 grams!
Zinc is so important in the regulation of gene expression that 1% of the human genome codes for Zinc fingers(1).
The highest concentrations of Zinc are found in the liver, pancreas, kidney, muscle, prostate and ALL epithelial tissue- including the skin and entire digestive tract, mouth to anus(1).
Zinc (and magnesium) is one of the first minerals to be depleted under stress, and according to Mark Hyman, M.D. "Over 70% of Americans are deficient in Zinc".
Zinc Deficiency causes:
* Impaired taste (hypogeusia- lending to over eating)
* Depressed Growth and Poor Immune System Function *Zinc deficient animals have thymic atrophy and lowered T-helper cell function
* Low Testosterone and Free T4
* Decreased insulin response
* Impaired glucose metabolism
Lord, R. Laboratory Evaluations for Integrative and Functional Medicine. Metametrix Institute. 2008 )
Low RBC Zinc is associated with POOR sensitivity to sour and salty foods in adults.
Zinc status and taste acuity in older Europeans: the ZENITH study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2005) 59, Suppl 2, S31-S36
A clinical intervention trial of 50 mg Zinc/day significantly decreased depression and anxiety in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.
Katz, RL. Zinc deficiency in anorexia nervosa. J Adolesc Health Care. 1987 Sep;8(5):400-6.
A randomized controlled trial by Birmingham et al found that Zinc supplementation increased body mass in anorexic women.
Birmingham CL, Gritzner S. Eat Weight Disord. 2006 Dec;11(4):e109-11
Zinc is a mineral essential to both normal health and to optimal cellular function. As a cofactor for an excess of seventy enzymes, zinc plays an important role in cellular processes.
The second vital function of zinc is as a component of specific DNA binding proteins, known as zinc finger proteins, commonly referred to as zinc fingers. Zinc fingers are vital for nutrient/gene interactions. For example vitamins A and D, as well as numerous hormones including insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and growth hormone (GH) rely on specific zinc fingers to bind to DNA regions, which in turn effect the expression of specific genes.
Functionally, zinc participates in cell membrane stability, and provides structural strength to bones, as it is part of the bone mineral apatite.1 Zinc also affords many other immunological and host defenses. Thymulin, a thymus specific hormone, requires zinc for expression of activity. 2, 3 New protein production for tissue repair is a zinc dependent
process, thus zinc status is particularly important in times of high tissue reformation, as seen in trauma and sepsis. In animals a zinc deficient diet maintained for two weeks resulted in a severe impairment in the ability to generate a cytotoxic response to a tumor challenge, which was reversed with zinc administration. 4 Immunological consequences as a result of deficiency are evident by alterations in numerous cellular types including a decrease in interferon-gamma (IFN-g), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), as well as decreased NK cell lytic activity, resulting in a decreased percentage of T cells.5 Zinc deficiency has been associated with both thymic atrophy and lymphoid tissue atrophy.6, 7
Zinc is also an important component in blood sugar stabilization, as insulin production is a zinc dependent process. Structurally, insulin contains two to four zinc atoms as part of its crystalline structure, thus a constant zinc supply is essential for normal function. Furthermore, low zinc status has also been observed in women with osteoporosis and osteopenia. 8
The production of the transporter protein metallothionein (MT) is dependent upon zinc s status. As a result of deficiency or with low dietary zinc, gene expression is impaired, resulting in low levels of MT. Although the function of MT is unclear, it is thought to be involved with protection against metal toxicity, regulation of physiological metals, specifically zinc and copper, and in protection against oxidative stress. 9, 10 In one study MT was demonstrated to be an extremely efficient hydroxyl radical scavenger.11 MT has also been correlated with the suppression of mitochondrial oxidative stress, consequentially attenuating early-phase cardiac cell death, and shown to result in a significant preventative effect on the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. This effect was correlated to MT’s suppression of mitochondrial oxidative stress.12 A separate study deduced similar conclusions, whereby zinc supplementation resulted in the deterrence of diabetic cardiomyopathy, which was attributed to zinc-induced cardiac MT induction.13
Additionally, zinc is virtually absent in highly refined foods, thus is likely deficient in individuals consuming this type diet. Taken together these studies and others demonstrate the beneficial roles of oral zinc.
On a cautionary note, supplemental copper is recommended with long-term zinc supplementation.
Zinc deficiency is generally widespread in the American population. Because of its involvement in an abundant number of physiologically different enzymatic processes, deficiency encompasses a wide array of symptomatologies, and may be broad reaching.
Dietary sources of zinc are generally low, with the largest quantity found in oysters. Other food sources of zinc include red meat, poultry, beans, nuts, whole grains, fortified cereals, and dairy products, however phytates inherently found in many vegetables and in whole grain products are know to decrease zinc absorption. The estimated daily consumption of zinc is 4-14 mg/day, however, of this only 10-40% is absorbed.1 Supplemental forms of zinc are easily administered, and aqueous varieties offer the advantage of an easily adjustable dose.
Additionally, an aqueous form is easily utilized to perform a Zinc Tally or Zinc Taste Test to assess for deficiency. Signs of zinc deficiency include poor wound healing, slow growth, and poor appetite.
Gustin, a zinc dependent polypeptide in the mouth may be utilized to assess for zinc deficiency. This protein aids in discriminating specific tastes for metals such as zinc. Therefore, those zinc-deficient have little to no taste for zinc.
1. Berdanier CD. Advance Nutrition Micronutrients. CRC Press. 1998.
2. Dardenne M, Pleau JM, Nabarra B, et al. Contribution of zinc and other metals to the biological activity of the serum thymic factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1982; 79:5370-3.
3. Pleau JM, Fuentes V, Morgat JL, Bach JF. Specific receptors for the serum thymic factor (FTS) in lymphoblastoid cultured cell lines. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1980; 77:2861-5.
4. Frost P, Rabbani P, Smith J, Prasad A. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity and tumor growth in zinc-deficient mice. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1981;167:333-7.
5. Prasad AS. Zinc and Immunity. Mol Cell Biochem. 1998 Nov;188(1-2):63-9.
6. Prasad AS, Oberleas D. Changes in Activities of Zinc-Dependent Enzymes in Zinc-Deficient Tissues of Rats. J Appl Physiol 1971;31:842-6.
7. Prasad AS. Zinc: Mechanisms of Host Defense. J Nutr 2007;137:1345-9.
8. Mutlu M, Argun M, Kilic E, Saraymen R, Yazar S. Magnesium, zinc and copper status in osteoporotic, osteopenic and normal post-menopausal women. J Int Med Res. 2007;35:692-5.
9. Klaassen CD, Liu J, Choudhuri S. Metallothionein: An intracellular protein to protect against cadmium toxicity. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 39:267–294, 1999.
10. Templeton DM, Cherian MG. Toxicological significance of metallothionein. Methods Enzymol 205:11–24, 1991.
11. Thornalley PJ, Vasak M. Possible role for metallothionein in protection against radiationinduced oxidative stress: Kinetics and mechanism of its reaction with superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. Biochim Biophys Acta. 827:36–44, 1985.
12. Cai L, Wang Y, Zhou G, Chen T, Song Y, Li X, Kang YJ. Attenuation by metallothionein of early cardiac cell death via suppression of mitochondrial oxidative stress results in a
prevention of diabetic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Oct 17;48(8):1688-97.
13. Wang Y, Song Y, Elsherif L, Song Z, Zhou G, Prabhu SD, Saari JT, Cai L. Cardiac metallothionein induction plays the major role in the prevention of diabetic cardiomyopathy by zinc supplementation. Circulation. 2006 Jan 31;113(4):544-54.